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Since 1974, private and foreign investment have been scarce in Angola’s housing sector. Commercial banks are hesitant to lend to real estate due to massive defaults and inefficient foreclosures.Bank of Angola: In July 2022, 15% of individual loans were for housing. The central bank created a mortgage and construction credit programme to promote homeownership. Angola lacks gender-disaggregated financial inclusion statistics, hindering growth.
Angola’s economy grew by 0.7% in 2021 after five consecutive years of recession. Government debt fell sharply to 79% of GDP in 2021 from 120% in 2020. In 2022 and 2023, Angola’s economy and finances should improve. This depends on oil prices and non-oil economic performance. The Bank of Angola aims to give 50% of the population basic financial services by 2022. Creditinfo Group will open Angola’s first credit agency. Nine banks in Angola offer mortgages, and 6200 people have them. Angola has a 32.9% unemployment rate and a 59.8% youth unemployment rate (ages 15 to 24). Half the population lives below Kz810 (US$1.90).
Few can afford mortgages. Low-income families choose between housing, childcare, healthcare, education, and food. Owner-builders deliver most of Angola’s housing stock. The informal sector provides land, labor, and building materials for 67% of Luandans’ self-built homes. According to surveys, piped water and electricity are less likely in rentals.
Slowly, the government has invested in new townhomes (centralidades). Few properties have “colonial” deeds or full legal ownership, despite legal protections. Outdated cadastres, housing, and real estate registers hinder urban land management. In the informal urban market, where houses are built and sold in stages, land tenure regularisation is crucial. Angola ranked 167th out of 190 countries in property registration in 2020.
IFC and KixiCrédito will study alternative building technologies for sustainable housing. Angola’s first regulated credit bureau will help banks lend. The World Bank’s Climate Change Knowledge Portal provides 1991–2020 data. Climate data gaps slow disaster planning. Angola has no green building standards or council. Angola aims to give 60% of the population renewable energy by 2025. 51% of urban homes have piped water, while 23% do not. In peri-urban areas, piped water and basic sanitation are rare.
Find out more information on the housing finance sector of Angola, including key stakeholders, important policies, and housing affordability:
- Access to Finance
- Housing Supply
- Property Markets
- Policy and Legislation
- Availability of Data on Housing Finance
- Green Applications for Affordable Housing
Each year, CAHF publishes its Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook. The profile above is from the 2022 edition, which has up-to-date profiles for 55 African countries.Download yearbook
Since independence in 1974, Angola’s housing sector has struggled to attract private and foreign investment. Commercial banks are hesitant to extend credit to the real estate market due to widespread defaults and inefficient foreclosure processes. According to the Bank of Angola (Banco Nacional de Angola – BNA), only 15% of total loans extended by banks to individuals were housing loans in July 2022. This is even though the Bank of Angola aims to promote residential construction and enable access to mortgage finance. To support investment in the housing sector, the central bank established a special scheme for mortgage and construction credit and allocated at least Kz850 billion (approximately US$2 billion) to the banking sector to promote access to mortgage finance. The central bank is leading efforts to unite stakeholders to explore opportunities and identify constraints in boosting credit to the housing sector.
Spurred by the recovery in oil prices and revenues, Angola’s economy expanded by 0.7% in 2021 following five consecutive years of recession. The Government continued to implement structural reforms to diversify the economy and promote the country’s attractiveness to foreign investment. As a result, government debt declined sharply to 79% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2021 from 120% of GDP in 2020 ― following the conclusion of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Extended Fund Programme (2018-2021) and a debt reprofiling agreement with China. Angola’s economic and fiscal outlook is projected to continue improving in 2022 and 2023. However, this depends on potentially volatile oil prices and the performance of the non-oil economy.
Housing affordability remains a key concern, especially given the impact COVID-19 on the vulnerable. Inflation in 2021 remained high at 25.7 %, although the central bank expects this to fall in 2022. In response, the government, with support from the World Bank, has continued implementing the Kwenda Social Protection Program. The program intends to reach 1.6 million low income families and as of 30 March 2022 had benefited 56% of the 535 333 registered households.
Angola’s 33.9 million population is projected to grow by 3.2% annually. With an urban population of nearly 23 million (approximately 67% of the total population), Angola is one of the most urbanised countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Due to climate change, Angola is increasingly becoming more vulnerable to “prolonged droughts, floods, reduced water availability, coastal degradation and reduced agricultural productivity.” Forced migration of Angolans to urban areas because of the civil war has led to a concentration of the population along the country’s coastlines. An estimated 64% of the urban population live in Angola’s coastal settlements which are highly vulnerable to climate and environmental changes.
A lingering drought since 2010 in rural communities in Angola’s southwestern provinces of Cunene, Huila and Namibe has threatened food security and resulted in forced migration to urban areas. Approximately 1.6 million people are estimated to be at risk of facing severe hunger. Efforts are being made by the government, international development partners and civil society to alleviate the crisis.
 Cain, A. (2017). The Private Housing Sector in Angola. Pg. 12.
 Banco Nacional De Angola. (2022). Nota de Informação Estatística sobre o Crédito de Julho de 2022. (Accessed 16 August 2022).
 Costa, T. (2022). Housing credit will be granted by eight eligible banks. 13 April 2022. Ver Angola..
 Banco Nacional De Angola (2022). Mesa Redonda Sobre Crédito ao Sector Habitacional.
 African Development Bank Group (2022). Angola Economic Outlook 2022..
 Fitch Ratings (2022). Fitch Revises Angola’s Outlook to Positive; Affirms at ‘B-‘. https://www.fitchratings.com/research/sovereigns/fitch-revises-angola-outlook-to-positive-affirms-at-b-15-07-2022 (Accessed 6 August 2022).
 African Development Bank Group (2022). Angola Economic Outlook 2022.
 Angop (2022). National Development Plan with 65.75% of execution. 30 March 2022..
 World Bank (2021). Urban population (% of total population) – Sub-Saharan Africa. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS?locations=ZG (Accessed 13 September 2022)
 Republic of Angola (2021). Nationally Determined Contribution of Angola. Pg. 14
Cain, A. (2020). Building Resilience to Climate Change in Angola’s coastal cities. Pg. 3.
 Red Cross Climate Centre (2021). Angola faces most damaging drought in 40 years. https://www.climatecentre.org/8596/angola-faces-worst-recorded-drought-in-40-years/ (Accessed 11 August 2022).
Access to Finance
Angola lacks robust gender-disaggregated financial inclusion data, hindering the development of the financial sector. Available estimates suggest that the country’s financial inclusion rates in 2019 were below 30%, with the Bank of Angola aiming to raise the percentage of the population with access to basic financial services to 50% by the end of 2022. Creditinfo Group, in partnership with the Bureau Central Privada de Informação de Crédito, has announced plans to open Angola’s first licensed credit bureau. The project aims to unlock access to credit for the unbanked population and support responsible lending.
Angola’s first cash transfer program, Kwenda, promotes financial inclusion by delivering payments digitally for most beneficiaries. Over half of the low income households targeted by the Kwenda program are female-headed. Digitisation of payments is integrating the previously unbanked population into the formal financial sector while the program has empowered women to make housing improvements and take care of children’s educational expenses.
Angola’s banking sector is made up of 25 licensed commercial banks. In 2021, the Bank of Angola revoked one bank’s license due to inadequate capital reserves. Nine commercial banks offer residential mortgages in Angola, and housing loans number approximately 6 200 countrywide. The banking sector’s non-performing loans stood at 21.2% of gross loans in March 2022.
In July 2022, the Bank of Angola kept its benchmark rate at 20% for the sixth straight meeting. Generally, lending rates range between 19% and 33%. Banco Angolano de Investimentos typically offers a loan to value at origination of up to 90% of the property value and provides the longest mortgage term of up to 25 years. Loans under the Special Scheme for Mortgage Credit will be reserved for residential properties built by formal residential developers after 2012. Depending on borrowers’ financial capacity, banks may grant credit up to Kz100 million (US$234 555). The maximum tenor of the loan is 25 years, with the interest rate capped at 7% during the first 10 years, which is far more affordable than market rates offered by commercial lenders. During the first five years of the notice (2022-2027) , construction finance will be provided for a maximum term of three years with the interest rate capped at 10%. From 1 June 2027, the interest rate will be variable and indexed to the 30-day interbank market reference rate, plus a maximum spread of 1%.
In recent years, the Bank of Angola has revoked the licences of numerous non-banking financial institutions due to failure to comply with regulations or to inactivity for longer than six months. Angola’s non-bank financial sector has 20 licensed microfinance institutions and one credit cooperative. The total value of microfinance loans issued to only 24 822 beneficiaries in 2021 amounted to Kz14.39 billion (US$33.752 million). Average annual interest for the entire sector is estimated to be 67%―reflecting the high cost of unsecured credit. The country’s largest non-bank financier is KixiCrédito, which offers microfinance for small businesses and a housing product known as KixiCasa, which provides loans for incremental and upgradeable housing.
 CommsUpdate (2021). Angola interested in Safaricom’s mobile money..
 Bartels, J. (2022). Creditinfo to Open First Angola’s Credit Bureau in Partnership with Bureau Central Privada de Informação de Crédito SA (Bureau). 4 July 2022. Business Information Industry Association..
Banco Nacional De Angola (2022). Lista das Instituições Financeiras Autorizadas.
 Verangola (2022). Country has only 6200 housing loans in a universe of 30 million inhabitants.
(Accessed 15 September 2022).
 Banco Nacional De Angola (2022). Indicadores de Solidez Financeira do Sector Bancário – 2022..
 Almeida et al. (2022). Global Outlier Angola Has Room to Cut Rate as Currency Jumps. Bloomberg Africa Edition. 23 August 2022).
 Angola Press Agency (2021). Angola: BNA Revokes Licences of Financial Institutions. 24 August 2021..
 Banco Nacional De Angola (2022). Relatório Anual e Contas 2021. https://www.bna.ao/#/publicacoes-e-media/relatorios/relatorio-anual-contas/detalhe/403 (Accessed 15 August 2022). Pg. 32.
 CAHF (2018). 2018 Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook -Angola Country Profile. Pg.66.
Angola’s housing backlog was estimated to be at least 1.9 million units in 2018. Considering the country’s urban growth rate of 4.14%, this figure has likely increased in recent years. The most recent (2014) population and housing census reported that most (75.4%) households own their homes and 19.2% rent. Of the owner-occupied dwellings, 87.2% are said to be self-constructed units. A modelling study on household overcrowding across Africa revealed that in 2018 approximately 8.5 million Angolans lived in overcrowded conditions in urban areas.
In the fourth quarter of 2021, the unemployment rate was 32.9% and 59.8% among the youth (ages 15 to 24 years). Angola’s informal sector employs 79.3% of the population. Almost half of the population lives below the international poverty line of Kz810 (US$1.90) a day. Access to housing finance is, therefore, still only affordable and accessible to a small proportion of the population.
Given Angola’s youthful population and high fertility rate, the absence of employment opportunities could have enormous consequences. For low income households, investing in housing competes with expenses such as childcare, healthcare, education and food. In Luanda province, education fees accounted for the most significant year-on-year price increase in July 2022, at 5.73%. While Angola’s annual inflation rate slowed down for the seventh consecutive month, it remains in double digits at 19.8% as of August 2022. 
HabiTerra, founded by Development Workshop (DW) Angola, developed a housing project (Quissala) with KixiCredito in Huambo. Supported by Reall, the project’s second phase has completed 23 one-bedroom, 33.5m2 units out of an expected 62 units. HabiTerra’s rent-to-buy model allows low income clients to rent a one or two-bedroom house for 18 months. During this period, the rental payments act as a deposit and are sufficient to pay off the land and build a successful credit profile with KixiCredito. Based on available data, this appears to be the cheapest house on the market, delivered by a private developer.
Initiated by the Angolan government in 2009, the Housing Development Fund (Fundo de Fomento Habitacional – FFH) (Decree 54/09 of 2009) finances social housing for low income households. Beneficiaries of subsidised loans are limited to public servants in state housing projects. The government launched subsidised rent-to-buy schemes in 2013 to expand subsidies to those in formal employment with a national identity card and taxpayer card. However, the scheme mainly benefited early career professionals and civil servants earning over Kz426 300 (US$1 000) . Despite government’s best efforts to reach low income households with subsidies, most initiatives are unaffordable for the majority.
 Bah et al. (2018). Housing Market Dynamics in Africa. Pg. 6.
 United Nations (2021). Voluntary National Review on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. Pg. 76.
 UN Habitat (2017). HABITAT-MINOTH country programme document for sustainable urban development for Angola: 2018-2022. Pg.13.
 Chipeta et al. (2022). Mapping local variation in household overcrowding across
Africa from 2000 to 2018: a modelling study. The Lancet. Pg. 677.
 Trading Economics (2022). Angola Unemployment Rate.
 National Institute of Statistics (2022). Inquérito ao Emprego em Angola – IEA, Agosto 2022. Pg. 14.
 World Bank (2020). Poverty and Equity Brief. https://bit.ly/3dwjTyt (Accessed 14 September 2022) Pg.1 .
 National Institute of Statistics. Índice De Preços No Consumidor Nacional. Pg. 10.
 Trading Economics.(2022). Angola Inflation Rate.
 Reall (2022). Quissala 2: Angola. https://reall.net/data-dashboard/angola/quissala-2/ (Accessed 17 August 2022).
 Wood,D. (2018). Angola Housing Investment Landscapes Report. Prepared for CAHF. Pg. 17.
 Reall (2022). Quissala 2: Angola.
 CAHF (2018). 2018 Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook -Angola Country Profile. Pg.66.
Most of Angola’s housing stock is delivered incrementally by owner-builders. Over 67% of residents in Luanda are estimated to reside in self-built housing, often relying on the informal sector for access to land, labour and building materials. Luanda’s housing stock consists mainly of a dilapidated urban core of colonial-era buildings surrounded by sprawling informal settlements. According to an Abacus Property Market Report, many colonial buildings are vacant in Baixa de Luanda, with potential for rehabilitation and redevelopment. Informal backyard rental housing is prevalent in peri-urban Luanda where subletting and overcrowding is common. Types of informal rental accommodation range from leasing one or more rooms within a house to a complete home. Luanda’s building materials for rental housing are mainly concrete blocks with zinc or fibre-reinforced cement roofing. However, studies find that rental housing is less likely to provide piped water and electricity access. Foreign developers largely develop formal private-sector rental housing and primarily target higher income locals and expatriates in small, closed condominium-type construction. For instance, rentals in Central Luanda are estimated to be between Kz426 339 (US$1 000) to Kz1 279 018 (US$3 000). Affordable rent for the middle and lower income end of the market continues to remain in short supply, outside of the informal market.
The Government’s National Urbanisation and Housing Programme ― Plano Nacional De Urbanização e Habitação—sought to deliver one million houses as part of the country’s post-war reconstruction. Through this programme, 43 861 units were supplied between 2015 and 2021. The government has continued investing in the urban construction of new town housing (Centralidades) albeit more slowly than in the 2009-2018 period
The first phase of a state-financed housing project (Centralidade Dom Fernando Guimaraes Kevanu) in Cunene Province, comprising 484 units costing Kz7 million (US$16 418) each, was launched in July 2022. The project includes the construction of social amenities, and recreational and educational facilities. However, some new towns have remained unoccupied for several years. In the new town of Capari, 3 000 homes were reported to be vacant for approximately five years, resulting in illegal occupation and vandalism. The government through the FFH committed Kz19.7 billion (US$46 million) in August 2021 to rehabilitate vandalised properties recovered by the Attorney General’s Office.
The Angolan Real Estate Professionals Association (APIMA) is a non-profit association that organises and represents the interests of Angola’s real estate professionals. While APIMA collaborates with the government, legislation has yet to be enacted to govern the activities of developers and building contractors. Angola’s domestic construction and local building material sectors remain underdeveloped ― contributing to the reliance on imports. The price of building materials increased by 20.7% from July 2021 to August 2022. As of August 2022, the price of a 50kg bag of cement on the formal market was Kz3 500 (US$8.21). Angola’s road infrastructure network contributes to high building material costs. The rise in global oil prices and appreciation of the Kwanza has led to building material price fluctuations in the period 2021-2022. According to the Angolan Construction Material Industries Association (AIMCA), disruption in supply chains because of the Russia-Ukraine conflict has also led to increased prices of raw materials.
Advocates for local building materials have highlighted the opportunity to substitute wood for concrete in regions rich in timber, or consider using compressed earth blocks. Developers are exploring alternative methods of delivering homes. Cemex has partnered with Danish 3D printer maker, Cobod, to develop a technique that uses ready-mix concrete in the 3D-printing process. Power2Build applied this method in constructing Angola’s first 3D-printed concrete house in Luanda.
 Cain, A. (2020). Housing for whom? Rebuilding Angola’s cities after conflict and who gets left behind. https://bit.ly/3dzUJPB
 United Nations (2021). Voluntary National Review on the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. Pg. 77.
 Cain, A. (2017). Angola’s Housing Rental Market. CAHF. Pg. 6.
. Abacus Angola (2022). 2022 Property Market report. Pg. 7.
 Silva, G. (2022). Inaugurated the first centrality of Cunene. Apartments cost seven million kwanzas. 21 July 2022. Ver Angola.
 Ambrosio, A. (2021). Angola: The mystery of the 2,000 abandoned apartments in Bengo. 12 February 2021. DW Angola.
 Instituto Nacional de Estatística (2022). Inquérito de Preços de Material de Construção – IPMC, Agosto 2022. https://www.ine.gov.ao/Arquivos/arquivosCarregados//Carregados/Publicacao_637988459383816412.pdf (Accessed 20 August 2022). Pg.6.
 Email correspondence with Christina Feliciano, Cimangola, 18 August 2022
 Dungue, J. (2022). Preços dos materiais de construção fixaram-se nos 20,7% em Junho. 25 July 2022. Mercado..
 Republic of Angola (2016). Angolan National Report for Habitat III. Pg. 68.
 Quirke. J. (2022). Cemex and Cobod can now use ready-mix concrete in 3D-printing. 17 December 2021. Global Construction Review.
Legal frameworks protect the possession, use and occupation of properties. However, few properties have registered “colonial” deeds or full legal title, and this adds to tenure insecurity. In urban areas, the absence of up-to-date municipal land cadastres and housing and real estate registries hampers land management. As a result, no homeownership data stratified by gender is publicly available. The 202o World Bank Doing Business Indicators ranked Angola 167 out of 190 economies in property registration. Registering a property involves six procedures, taking an average of 190 days to complete, at a cost of 2.7% of the property value.
A land regularisation process (Land Registry Massification Programme) is underway and is anticipated to register more than three million homes and set up 27 land registry offices in all provincial capitals and selected municipalities. The registry offices, Administração Geral Tributária, and municipalities will be integrated into a digital platform that streamlines property registration. A total of 616 building permits for residential buildings (condominium, multi-family and single-family) were formally approved in 2021. Beyond state housing assets, the programme is expected to extend to privately-owned homes. The urgency of land tenure regularisation extends to the informal urban market, where houses are built incrementally and transacted informally.
In 2021, monthly rentals for older apartments in Luanda Sul/ Talatona (urban periphery) ranged between Kz341 071 (US$800) to Kz1 065 849 (US$2 500). This is largely where expatriates with families and Angolans with sufficient purchasing power reside. Rental and sale opportunities for the Angolan middle class in and around the centre of Luanda are lacking. It is anticipated that in 2022, there will be a shortage of one- and two-bedroom units. Viana, Camana and Benefica (areas typically for the emerging middle class) offer the cheapest rentals, from Kz106 584 (US$250) and up to Kz213 169 (US$500). Rentals for new apartments across all residential zones are higher, most notably in Luanda.
Sale values for used apartments in the periphery range between Kz852 679/m2 (US$2 000) and Kz1 492 188/m2 (US$3 500) in Luanda and Kz149 218/m2 (US$350) to Kz511 607/m2 (US$1 200) in Viana, Camana and Benefica. The monthly rentals and sales values in Greater Luanda are far too expensive for lower income households.
 Abacus Angola (2021). 2021 Property Market report.Pg. 5.
 Urban Landmark. Angola and informal land tenure arrangements. Pg. 4
 World Bank (2019). Doing Business 2020: Angola Country Profile..
 Governo de Angola (2021). Registo Predial prevê cadastrar mais de três milhões de imóveis.
 Instituto Nacional de Estatística .(2022). Inquérito às Licenças Aprovadas para a Construção de Edifícios. Pg. 8.
 Cain, A. (2020). Housing for whom? Rebuilding Angola’s cities after conflict and who gets left behind. Pg. 204.
 Abacus Angola (2022). 2022 Property Market report. Pg. 7.
Policy and Legislation
In recognition of housing as a focus of public policy, the Government designed the PNUH in 2008 – which aimed to benefit an estimated six million people. Under the PNUH, the state has largely met its housing delivery targets through the provision of fully or partially subsidised housing and rent-to-buy schemes. The infancy of market development in Angola and gaps in the legal framework governing residential foreclosure processes have militated against the private sector’s ability to raise funding through capital markets ― contributing to the reliance on state funding. The recently announced Special Scheme for Mortgage and Construction Credit contains fiscal reforms that include approving a new Property Tax Code in 2020 to transform Angola’s highly subsidised housing sector and capture the economic potential of state housing assets.
Angola has committed to fully implementing the Paris Agreement and global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by reviewing and updating the Nationally Determined Contribution of Angola (NDCs). Angola’s 2020 NDC sets targets for contributions to climate action and for the achievement of the Paris Agreement goals.
In the July 2021 to August 2022 period, the following pieces of legislation, which affect Angola’s housing and housing finance sector, were developed:
- The Bank of Angola published Notice no. 9/22 of 6 April 2022 to establish special mortgage and construction credit schemes. The Notice became effective in June 2022 and will be active for a period of five years, which the Bank of Angola may extend.
- The Angolan Government issued Presidential Decree No. 54/22 of 17 February 2022 on the national minimum wage.
- A new Land Register in Angola (Law no. 23/21) was published in October 2021. The registry will record all physical, economic, and legal aspects of real estate including its value and quality of construction. This registry is differentiated from the Land Cadastre and Land Matrix.
After the civil war, Angola enacted legislation that articulates principles of non-discrimination and gender equity. The Constitution of the Republic of Angola, the Civil Code, and the Family Code underpin the legal framework governing urban land and property ownership. The Land Law (Law 9/04) gives the state “ultimate authority over all land and natural resources and an irreversible right to expropiate land.”
Development Workshop of Angola (2016). Angola’s Housing Sectors: Understanding Market Dynamics, Performance, and Opportunities. CAHF. Pg. 10.
 Cain, A. (2020). Housing for whom? Rebuilding Angola’s cities after conflict and who gets left behind. Pg. 202.
 Cain, A. (2017). Angola’s New Housing Fiscal Reforms. CAHF.
 Marques da Cruz, D. (2021). New Land Register Law is published in Angola. 25 November 2021. Further Africa.
 Cain, A. (2019). Women’s Tenure Rights and Land Reform in Angola. Pg. 3.
 Development Workshop Angola (2016). Land Markets for Housing in Angola Policy Paper. CAHF. Pg. 10.
In the post-election era, the Angolan government has the opportunity to improve the country’s business climate. Innovations by KixiCrédito provide insights into possible solutions to serve the bottom-of-the-pyramid housing market, for example, refurbishing old colonial buildings that are becoming available on the market. With Angola’s rapid urbanisation and vulnerability to climate change in mind, there is scope to research the potential for alternative building technologies in delivering sustainable housing.
The partnership between the IFC and KixiCrédito will generate valuable insights into Angola’s digital financial services market. Coupled with the ongoing cash transfer program (Kwenda), lenders have a key role in promoting financial inclusion for the unbanked and underbanked populations. The anticipated opening of Angola’s first licensed credit bureau is essential for reducing the information asymmetries that deter banks from lending down market. Regulators must make a concerted effort to improve the supply of demand-side data, which is required for the effective functioning of the housing and housing finance sector.
Availability of Data on Housing Finance
Minimal data sources are available to understand how climate issues affect affordable housing. Development Workshop Angola is active in this space, working on multiple projects tackling climate change in the country. The World Bank’s Climate Change Knowledge Portal disseminates observed and historical data for 1991-2020. The lack of reliable and robust climate data hinders the timely development of disaster management plans.
Key data hosts on housing finance include the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estatistica-INE) and the Bank of Angola:
- INE publishes a range of economic and inflation statistics, demographic surveys and sectoral reports. The INE produces gender-disaggregated statistics on mortality, labour force participation, and education and training.
- The Bank of Angola is the central host of monetary and financial statistics, financial stability reports and key financial indicators of the banking sector. The Bank does not publicly disseminate any gender-disaggregated demand-side financial inclusion data.
- Most commercial banks publish information fact sheets on mortgage loans, including information on lending terms and interest rates.
Not all reports and statistics on the websites of INE and the Bank of Angola are published regularly, so key datasets are often outdated. According to United Nations (UN) Women, only 36% of indicators needed to monitor the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) from a gender perspective were available, with gaps in key areas such as women’s access to assets (including land and housing).
 Cain, A. (2020). Building Resilience to Climate Change in Angola’s coastal cities. Pg. 17.
Green Applications for Affordable Housing
Given the relatively nascent green market, Angola has no established council regulating green building, and no green building standards. There are no IFC EDGE-certified projects across all sectors in Angola, nor are banks offering green housing finance products. A Green Buildings Market Intelligence Angola Profile published by the IFC predicts that the tourism industry will lead Angola’s green market in the future.
Hydropower is the primary source (68%) of power generation in Angola. In 2020, approximately 46.9% of Angolans were estimated to have access to electricity. Angola aims to improve its access rate to 60% of the population by 2025 by tapping into new, renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind. The Angolan government intends to develop off-grid, small-scale projects that use renewable technology with a mix of fossil fuels. Over half (51%) of all urban households have access to piped water supply and 23% have access on their premises. However, household surveys show that peri-urban populations are three to five times less likely to be connected to piped water and even less likely to have access to basic sanitation services. Development Workshop Angola is working to support the government build capacity in community water management across the country. More recently, DW explored climate change and water supply in Angola’s coastal settlements. The project involved investigating the use of various participatory and adaption planning tools to mitigate the susceptibility of vulnerable groups to climate change effects.
 EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiencies) is an International Finance Corporation certification system aimed to make buildings more environmentally friendly by being more resource efficient.
 IFC (2017). Green Buildings Market Intelligence Angola Country Profile. (Accessed 25 August 2022).
 International Trade Agreement (2022). Angola – Country Commercial Guide. https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/angola-energy (Accessed 29 August 2022).
 World Bank (2022). Access to electricity (% of population) – Angola. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS?locations=AO (Accessed 25 August 2022)
 Institute for Security Studies (2020). Angolan futures 2050: Beyond Oil. Pg. 77
 Cordoba, L., Luis, A., Da Costa, L. and Fenwick, C. (2021). Diagnosing Angola’s WASH Sector: An Urgent Call to
Action. Pg. 13.
 Cain, A. (2020). Building Resilience to Climate Change in Angola’s coastal cities.
Abacus Angola: www.abacusangola.com
Âgencia Angola Press: www.angop.ao
Angola Banking Association: www.abanc.ao
Association of Real Estate Professionals in Angola: www.apima-angola.com
Development Workshop Angola: www.dw.angonet.org/
Housing Development Fund: www.ffh.minfin.gov.ao
Kixi Credito: www.kixicredito.com
National Institute of Statistics: www.ine.gov.ao
Urban Forum: www.forum.angonet.org
UN Habitat Angola: www.unhabitat.org/angola
World Bank Climate Change Portal: www.climateknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/country/angola
Zenki Real Estate: www.zenkirealestate.com