This profile is also available in French here.
To download a pdf full version of the 2021 Niger country profile, click here.
Niger remains a predominantly rural Sahelian country in 2020 with only 17% of the population urbanised, a third of whom live in the capital city of Niamey. Considered one of the poorest countries in the world, it is “facing a triple crisis: security, humanitarian and, more recently, health (COVID-19)”. The World Bank estimates that more than 10 million people will be living in extreme poverty in 2020, including 685 000 more than in 2019, or 42.9% of the population. With 59% of its population already living in slums, three out of four jobs in the informal non-agricultural sector, an annual urbanization rate of 4.4%, and 500 000 new city dwellers expected each year by 2050, Niger’s cities are and will be particularly affected by informality. In addition, for the past few years, the country has been hosting 241 321 refugees and 300 320 displaced persons, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), fleeing conflicts in the region, particularly in Nigeria and Mali.
The West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), of which Niger is a member state, has not been spared the international economic and financial situation linked to the health crisis. Niger’s gross domestic product (GDP) grew, in real terms, by only 1.2% in 2020 whereas it had grown by 5.9% in 2019, in line with regional dynamics. This is due to a sharp decline in the contribution of the tertiary sector to economic growth. Meanwhile, Niger’s inflation rate reached 2.9% in 2020.
Production of social housing is one of the priorities of the Renaissance III Programme presented by the new government. Despite this, the difficulties of the housing sector and its financing are only reinforced in this context of economic crisis and racing urbanisation: demographic pressure intensifies each year, access to basic services remains a challenge, urban informality remains prevalent, and the low solvency of households hinders their access to the housing market and to sources of finance.
Find out more information on the housing finance sector of Niger, including key stakeholders, important policies and housing affordability:
- Macroeconomic Overview
- Access to Finance
- Housing Supply
- Property Markets
- Policy and Regulation
- Availability of data on housing finance
- Urban Informality
- Additional Sources
Each year, CAHF publishes its Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook. The profile above is from the 2021 edition, which has up-to-date profiles for 55 African countries.Download yearbook
Niger, which is a Sahelian country, is one of the least developed countries in the world. In 2018, it ranked 189 in the Human Development Index. Despite progress made in recent years and the wealth of its subsoil, extreme poverty remains high at 41.4 percent in 2019, affecting more than 9.5 million people. Access to basic services is a challenge, with a growing population (3.8 percent a year) of 24 million in 2020, mostly young (50 percent under 15 years of age), and a fertility rate of 6.7 children per woman.
In addition, Niger hosts a flow of refugees due to regional conflicts (Nigeria, Libya and Mali). At the end of 2019, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) counted 441 900 people affected, an increase of 14 percent from 2018. In recent years, the security situation has deteriorated, particularly in border areas. The government has halted the spread of the conflict, however, deteriorating security does pose a risk to economic activities.
The political context is relatively stable since the re-election of the President Mahamadou Issoufou in 2016. The next presidential and legislative elections are due in December 2020, preceded by municipal and regional elections.
Despite various obstacles, Niger’s economy is expected to grow by 6.3 percent in 2019. Its economy is mainly driven by agriculture (40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP)). Between 2018 and 2019, the budget deficit narrowed as a result of high imports related to major infrastructure projects for the African Union summit. In January 2020, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concluded that “economic activity is expected to evolve favourably, with an average annual growth of over 7 percent over the next five years”, including major structural projects such as the Kandadji dam and the construction of the oil pipeline. The economic growth rate for 2020 was estimated before the pandemic at 5.33 percent. According to IMF projections, growth is expected to fall to one percent of GDP in 2020. Exports are slowing and major projects are experiencing delays. The budget deficit is projected to increase to five percent of GDP, due to lack of revenues, lower investment, greater needs and spending on healthcare, social protection and business support. The slowdown in the Chinese economy has also impacted Niger with reduced demand for raw materials. Stocks of some food products from China have been sharply reduced, leading to higher prices.
Mobilisation of the international community should help cushion the effects of the crisis. The IMF has approved the disbursement of about FCFA 66.8 billion (USD114.49 million) to urgently meet the balance of payments needs caused by the pandemic. The World Bank has approved several means of financing for a total of CFA271 billion FCFA (US$464 million). The European Union has allocated CFA14.7 billion (US$25 million) “to cover basic needs, particularly in terms of housing”. Following the example of the development finance institutions, private banks have given CFA100 million (UD$171 145). This financing will make it possible to support the development of the country and the Nigerien economy, via companies.
 UNDP (2019). Human Development Index Report 2019. United Nations Development Programme. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2019_overview_-_french.pdf (Accessed 30 July 2020). Pg. 44.
 UNFPA. World Population Dashboard Niger. United Nations Population Fund. https://www.unfpa.org/data/world-population/NE (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Niamey and the 2 days (2020). Local elections could be held on 13 December. 23 July 2020. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/la-gestion-publique/politique/2307-5755-les-elections-locales-pourraient-se-tenir-le-13-decembre-prochain (Accessed on 30 July 2020).
 Unfavourable raw material prices, insecurity are a major factor.
 IMF (2020). Country Report No. 20/7. January 2020. https://www.elibrary.imf.org/doc/IMF002/28629-9781513526270/28629-9781513526270/Other_formats/Source_PDF/28629-9781513526294.pdf (Accessed 30 July 2020). Pg. 6.
 Takouleu J.M. (2020). Niger: IDA provides USD150 million for the Kandadji water and electricity programme. 30 June 2020. Afrik 21. https://www.afrik21.africa/en/niger-ida-provides-150-million-for-the-kandadji-water-and-electricity-programme/ (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Vidjingninou, F. (2020). Infrastructure: Niger-Benin, the growth pipeline. 19 June 2020. Jeune Afrique. https://www.jeuneafrique.com/mag/989127/economie/infrastructure-niger-benin-le-pipeline-de-la-croissance-5-8/ (Accessed 10 August 2020).
 UN Habitat (2015). Habitat III National Report. December 2015. http://habitat3.org/wp-content/uploads/Niger_NationalReport.pdf (Accessed 30 July 2020). Pg. 4.
 IMF (2020). Country Report No. 20/128. April 2020. https://www.imf.org/~/media/Files/Publications/CR/2020/English/1NEREA2020002.ashx (Accessed 30 July 2020). Pg. 2.
 Evans. D. and Oven. M. (2020). The most precarious countries are the most vulnerable in Covid-19. 18 March 2020. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/les-pays-les-plus-precaires-sont-les-plus-vulnerables-au-covid-19-133956 (Accessed 29 July 2020).
 IMF (2020). Country Report No. 20/128. April 2020. https://www.imf.org/~/media/Files/Publications/CR/2020/English/1NEREA2020002.ashx (Accessed 30 July 2020). Pg. 2.
 World Bank (2020). Press release. 10 April 2020 https://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/news/press-release/2020/04/15/niger-to-receive-13-95-million-for-covid-19-response (Accessed 30 July 2020).
 The funding allocated is US$13.95 million, US$100 million to strengthen local government capacity and management of the extractive sector, US$100 million to accelerate digital transformation and US$250 million to mitigate the impact of the pandemic. World Bank (2020). Press Release No 2021/025/AF. 6 August 2020. https://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/news/press-release/2020/08/06/niger-world-bank-approves-250-million-to-boost-long-term-growth (Accessed 17 August 2020).
Findev Gateway (2020). Niger: The World Bank grants USD100 million for its digital transformation. 15 July 2020. https://www.findevgateway.org/fr/actualites/niger-la-banque-mondiale-octroie-100-millions-pour-sa-transformation-digitale (Accessed on 17 August 2020).
World Bank (2020). Press Release No: 2021/021/AFR. 3 August 2020. https://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/news/press-release/2020/08/03/niger-100-million-to-improve-decentralized-services-and-management-of-the-extractive-sector-during-the-covid-19-crisis (Accessed 17 August 2020).
 European Union (2020). Humanitarian needs in Niger: EU support of €22.5 million (FCFA 14.7 billion). 4 August 2020. https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/niger/83749/besoins-humanitaires-au-niger-soutien-de-225-millions-d%E2%80%99euros-147-milliards-f-cfa-de-l%E2%80%99ue_fr (Accessed 19 August).
 Banque Atlantique (2020). Niger: BIA and Banque Atlantique participate in the solidarity fund for the fight against Covid-19 to the tune of FCFA 100 million.29 April 2020. https://www.banqueatlantique.net/niger-bia-niger-et-banque-atlantique-participent-au-fonds-de-solidarite-pour-la-lutte-contre-le-covid-19-a-hauteur-de-100-millions-de-fcfa/ (Accessed 31 July 2020).
Access to Finance
Niger’s banking sector is relatively immature with less than 10 years of operation and its penetration is still low, with a demographic penetration rate of banking services17 at 0.42 in Niger compared to 0.9 for the WAEMU.18 Niger’s banking landscape is covered by 14 banks and four financial institutions19 and the formal financial sector is regulated by the WAEMU.
Four major banks (Sonibank, Bank of Africa, Ecobank, and Banque Atlantique) dominate the Nigerien market. Eleven commercial banks offer mortgage loans. For the past three years, the Banque de l’Habitat du Niger (BHN) has offered a financial service dedicated to the housing sector, through the financing of “real estate development and social housing improvement,” and is part of the National Housing Policy. The BHN manages the National Housing Fund (FNH). To address the low capacity of households to access mortgage loans, the banks allow the financing of the real estate project up to 100% of its amount, with monthly payments of at least 50% of the monthly salary. The interest rates charged are among the lowest in the region (6%) and the term can be up to 30 years.
Banks finance mortgages through their own funds, term deposits, the BCEAO and the Caisse Régionale de Refinancement Hypothécaire (CRRH-UEMOA). The Nigerien economy is strongly based on the informal sector and only 6.8% of the population have bank accounts. The 39 approved decentralised financial systems also participate in the financial inclusion of nearly 300 000 members (deposits and credits) for a total amount of outstanding credits of CFA21.9 billion (US$39.7 million).
 BCEAO (2020). Opinion No 008-04-2020 relating to measures in favor of Microfinance Institutions affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. 28 April 2020. https://www.bceao.int/fr/reglementations/avis-ndeg-008-04-2020-relatif-aux-mesures-en-faveur-des-institutions-de (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 BCEAO (2018). Directory of WAEMU Banks and Financial Institutions 2018. https://www.bceao.int/sites/default/files/2019-05/Annuaire%20des%20banques%20et%20%C3%A9tablissements%20financiers%20de%20l%27UMOA%202018_0.pdf (Accessed 31 July 2020). Pg. 179.
 BCEAO (2019). Main WAEMU FDS indicators as of December 2019. https://www.bceao.int/sites/default/files/2020-05/BCEAO%20-%20Indicateurs%20SFD%20UMOA%20au%2031%20d%C3%A9cembre%202019.pdf (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Affordable Housing Institute. Inventory of Affordable Housing Places in the WAEMU. Unpublished. (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Africa Tribune (2018). Niger: a housing bank to solve the housing crisis. 15 December 2018. https://afrique.latribune.fr/finances/banques-assurances/2018-12-15/niger-une-banque-de-l-habitat-pour-resorber-la-crise-du-logement-801240.html (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Doh. G. (2017). Soon a National Housing Fund to meet the need for housing. 6 December 2017.Niamey and the 2 days. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/la-gestion-publique/social/0612-1650-bientot-un-fonds-national-de-l-habitat-pour-faire-face-au-besoin-de-logement (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 BCEAO (2019). Debtor conditions applied by WAEMU credit institutions for the second half of 2019. https://www.bceao.int/sites/default/files/2020-03/CONDITIONS%20DE%20BANQUE%20DECEMBRE%202019.pdf (Accessed 31 July 2020). Pg. 9.
 Société Nigérienne de Banque (Sonibank), Bank of Africa, Ecobank and Banque Atlantique.
 Banque Atlantique (2020). Covid-19 provisions. Extension of maturities. 14 May 2020. https://www.banqueatlantique.net/dispositions-covid-19-banque-atlantique-prend-des-mesures-daccompagnement-pour-ses-clients/ (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Development of the real estate business (DB immo), management of the operation. http://sites.nova-technologies.com/dbimmoniger.com/produits.html (Accessed 17 August 2020).
 Banque Atlantique. Individuals Project Finance. https://www.banqueatlantique.net/particuliers/credit-immobilier/ (Accessed 17 August 2020).
 Ecobank. Property loan section. https://ecobank.com/ne/personal-banking/products-services/loans (Accessed 17 August 2020).
 Household survey and interview with a commercial bank (sources wish to remain anonymous).
 African Development Bank Group. The African Development Bank is providing a €15 million financing facility to support social housing in the WAEMU region. 20 March 2020. http://bit.ly/AFDBnews (Accessed 29 July 2020).
 This is Niger (2018). Launch of the activities of the Banque de l’Habitat du Niger https://www.iciniger.com/lancement-des-activites-de-la-banque-de-lhabitat-du-niger-bhn/ (Accessed 18 August 2020).
 CRRH-UEMOA (2018). Activity Report 2018. http://crrhuemoa.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/RAPPORT-DACTIVITES_2018.pdf (Accessed 18 August 2020). Pg. 10.
 World Bank Group (2018) Global Findex Database. The Little Data Book on Financial Inclusion 2018. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/29654/LDB-FinInclusion2018.pdf. Pg 117 (Accessed 31 July 2020).
Most Nigeriens do not have sufficient resources to acquire property or access a mortgage. Niger has the highest number of poor people in the region: three out of four live on less than CFA1 660 (US$3) a day and the average annual nominal expenditure per capita is about CFA259 000 (US$468). As a result, the supply of affordable housing is beyond the financial capacities of the majority of the population. In Niamey, more than 90% of the inhabitants do not have their own housing.
Civil servants or employees in the formal private sector with an income of between CFA150 000 (US$271) and CFA250 000 (US$452) tend to have access to mortgages: “Only 22% of salaried workers (less than 1% of the total population) have access to this type of housing finance.”
The economic downturn linked to the pandemic made it harder for households to access housing. For households excluded from the housing market, including refugees, non-governmental organisations are building houses through their development projects.
 WAEMU (2020). Communication note on the results of the First Harmonised Survey on Household Living Conditions. July 2020. http://www.uemoa.int/sites/default/files/bibliotheque/projet_commucationresultats_ehcvm_juin2020_13072020_obs.pdf (Accessed 30 July 2020).
 Mawulolo, A. (2020). Three out of four inhabitants live below the poverty line in Niger. 24 July 2020. Niamey and the 2 days. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/la-gestion-publique/gestion-publique/2407-5763-trois-habitants-sur-quatre-vivent-sous-le-seuil-de-pauvrete-au-niger (Accessed 29 July 2020).
 BCEAO (2019). Debtor conditions applied by WAEMU credit institutions for the second half of 2019. https://www.bceao.int/sites/default/files/2020-03/CONDITIONS%20DE%20BANQUE%20DECEMBRE%202019.pdf (Accessed 17 August 2020).
 Affordable Housing Institute. State of Affordable Housing Places in the WAEMU. Unpublished. (Accessed 31 July 2020).
In Niger, the housing supply is mostly self-built informal houses. The average size of Nigerien households is 6.5 individuals. The housing stock represents more than 2 400 000 dwellings, 17.9% of which are in urban areas. Traditional constructions, known as terracotta or banco houses (materials that are abundant and financially and technically accessible) are in the majority and represent 54.7% of the buildings in the cities. In addition, 15.7% of housing is in the form of villas and 14.5% in the form of “célibatérium” (one or two-room dwellings). Apartment buildings accounted for only 0.5% of construction in 2012.
The real estate development sector is underdeveloped in Niger: “Ninety-five percent of the housing built, both in the city of Niamey and in the country’s major cities, is built through the informal circuit, with only 5% going through the formal housing construction circuit.”
The average annual production in the city is estimated by the National Institute of Statistics to be about 4 275 dwellings in Niamey and 11 420 dwellings at the national level, but the figures need to be updated. The annual demand for housing is estimated at 6 000 dwellings for the capital and 50 000 for the country as a whole. According to the latest projections, the population of Niamey could double by 2030.
To meet housing needs, the government has committed itself over the period 2016-2035 through Acts I, II and III of the Renaissance Programme to construct social housing and the Sustainable Development and Inclusive Growth Strategy. The construction of 25 000 social housing units is planned, but “the results obtained have not lived up to expectations”. In the framework of the public-private partnership, the state makes the land available to property developers free of charge and ensures the servicing. In return, the developers undertake to sell the housing at affordable prices. Some operations are, nevertheless, well underway, such as the Cité Diaspora, the Cité Renaissance I, and the Cité Ya Salam III.
Recently, the General Policy Document of 26 May 2021 directs the state towards a land acquisition program for the construction of housing: a project of 15 000 plots of 350m² is planned in Bongoula, on the outskirts of Niamey. It will be aimed at workers in the public, semi-public and private sectors, including 4 000 with incomes of around CFA57 000 (US$103). The households will be responsible for financing the fencing and construction of the house. The banks, notably the BHN, should support the future buyers.
 Republic of Niger (2012). General Census of Population and Housing (2012). Report on Habitat Characteristics and Living Environment. (Accessed 18 August 2020). Pg. 25.
 These are huts, tents, barracks, sheds, undeclared houses.
 UNHCR (July 2020). Humanitarian Subdivisions and Community Housing. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/77605.pdf (Accessed 27 July 2020).
 UNHCR. Report Niger Update June 2020 Tillabery and Tahoua Regions. https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/77049 (Accessed 29 July 2020). Pg. 2.
 Niger Reborn. Word from the President https://www.nigerrenaissant.org/fr/mot-du-president (Accessed 30 July 2020).
 Niger Reborn (2017). Priority Action Plan. September 2017 https://www.nigerrenaissant.org/sites/default/files/pdf/pdes-pap.pdf (Accessed 30 July 2020). Pg 5.
 Ibid. Pg 16.
Council of Ministers (2020). Statement by the Council of Ministers. 26 June 2020. https://nigerinter.com/2020/06/conseil-des-ministres-du-vendredi-26-juin-2020/ (Accessed 19 August 2020).
 The public private partnership with national and international partners; the creation of a housing bank that will become operational in 2018; the creation of a housing fund housed in the bank; the provision of land to the partners on behalf of future buyers; the exemption of social housing construction operations.
 ActuNiger (2020). Social housing: catch-up operation for the Renaissance. 28 June 2020. https://www.actuniger.com/societe/16353-logements-sociaux-operation-rattrapage-pour-la-renaissance.html (Accessed 19 August 2020).
 Niger Diaspora (2018). Interview with the Minister of Domains, Town Planning and Housing, Mr Wazizi Maman. https://nigerdiaspora.net/index.php/politique-niger/5232-rencontre-d-echanges-entre-le-gouvernement-et-la-secretaire-generale-de-l-onu-chargee-des-questions-de-nutrition-le-gouvernement-du-niger-s-engage-a-investir-dans-la-nutrition-a-travers-une-politique (Accessed 19 August 2020).
 Gaingne, S. (2020). Subdivisions in Niger now entrusted to the Ministry of Urban Planning and Town Councils. Niamey and the 2 days. 13 November 2018. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/la-gestion-publique/gouvernance-economique/1311-3104-les-lotissements-au-niger-confies-dorenavant-au-ministere-de-l-urbanisme-et-aux-mairies (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Niger Reborn. Construction of a private university campus https://www.nigerrenaissant.org/fr/projets-investissement/construction-dun-campus-universitaire-prive-niamey (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Niger Reborn. Project to create a residential city. https://www.nigerrenaissant.org/fr/projets-investissement/projet-de-creation-dune-cite-residentielle (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Niger Reborn. Creation of a building in downtown Niamey. https://www.nigerrenaissant.org/fr/projets-investissement/creation-dimmeuble-au-centre-ville-de-niamey (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Niger Reborn. Construction of social housing. https://www.nigerrenaissant.org/fr/projets-investissement/construction-de-logements-sociaux (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Institute of National Statistics (2020). Study on the impact of public infrastructure projects on the Nigerien economy (March 2020). http://www.stat-niger.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Rapport_Etude_impact_projets_infrastrutures_publiques.pdf (Accessed 19 August 2020). Pg. 69.
 Niamey and the 2 days (2019). 1,550 social housing units will soon be built in Niger at a total cost of FCFA 17.5 billion (8 May 2019). https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/l-economie/infrastructures/0805-3826-1-550-logements-sociaux-vont-bientot-etre-construits-au-niger-pour-un-cout-global-de-17-5-milliards-fcfa (Accessed 19 August 2020)
In recent years, “Foreign investors, wealthy Nigeriens and the diaspora are buying properties and upgrading the commercial and residential stock. However, the real estate market is still dominated by the plot: households buy a plot and build their own house gradually.”
An unserviced plot of land in the extension zones of Niamey costs, CFA3 000/m2 (US$5/m2)48 in 2021. In contrast, in dense, habitable areas with urban services, the price per m2 can be multiplied four or even five times. It takes four procedures and 13 days to register a property, at a cost of 7.4% of the value of the property. Obtaining a building permit requires, on average, 98 days and 19 procedures for a cost of 32.4% of the value of the construction. In the end, procedures and costs remain unaffordable for most of the population.
A few formal private or public developers are proposing a new housing offer. The cheapest option is to buy a 400m² plot on the outskirts of Niamey, at CFA7 311 000 (US$13 215), including a 45m² house with a bedroom, a living room, a kitchen, and a bathroom, and at about CFA9 million (US$16 268) for a 57m² house with an additional bedroom.
The rental market is highly developed, with Niger’s cities housing most tenants. In Niamey, rents are higher than elsewhere and vary according to quality, size, and location. For the wealthier population, monthly rents range from CFA110 000 (US$199)52 to CFA2.5 million (US$4 519) for high-end villas. Renting a room in the city centre varies from CFA25 000 (US$45) to CFA60 000 (US$108).54 Rent in the peripheral districts for a newly built house is between CFA40 000 (US$72) and CFA100 000 (US$181). Economic and security growth and the high rate of urbanisation have contributed to the increase in rents and housing demand in Niamey and other Nigerien cities.
 World Bank (2020) Doing Business 2020. Niger Report of the Ease of Doing Business. https://francais.doingbusiness.org/fr/data/exploreeconomies/niger#DB_dwcp (Accessed 29 July 2020).
 Telephone interview with Idrissa Moussa, UNCDF representative in Niger, 31 July 2020.
 Telephone interview with Ndiaga Bane. Managing Director of DB Immo, 17 August 2020.
Policy and Regulation
Housing legislation is based on Law 98-54: the National Housing Policy includes the establishment of the FNH, the BHN, a mortgage guarantee fund, and housing cooperatives.
From the 2000s onwards, a series of laws have been passed to improve the country’s legal and regulatory framework:
Law 2008-03 on urban planning and land development, which sets out rules and procedures for urban planning, operational urban planning, and control of urban land use, and aims to facilitate the registration of property titles in rural areas. It clarifies responsibilities for decentralisation and customary land rights;
The Constitution of the Seventh Republic promulgated in 2010 specifying the determination of the fundamental principles of housing policy, and the building code;
The Public-Private Partnership Act, 2012, promotes private interest in the development of housing and other urban infrastructure (long-term financing);
Law 2013-28 reforming urban regulation to facilitate slum upgrading projects and contribute to making urbanisation an instrument of economic and social development;
Laws 2017-20 updating the conditions for obtaining building permits; 2017- 27 dealing with long leasing; and Ordinance 2017-05 on leasing;
Law 2018-25 laying down the fundamental principles of construction and housing, proposed for revision in 2020 to “remedy the shortcomings and establish a reform that would contribute to the facilitation and efficiency of the construction permit process”.
 Republic of Niger (2012). General Census of Population and Housing (2012). Report on Habitat Characteristics and Living Environment. (Accessed 18 August 2020). Pgs. 7-9.
 African Law. Niger. Framework Act on Town Planning and Land Development. Law No. 2008-03 of 30 April 2008 http://www.droit-afrique.com/upload/doc/niger/Niger-Loi-2008-03-urbanisme.pdf (Accessed 18 August 2020).
 Ibid. Pg. 11.
 Affordable Housing Institute. State of Affordable Housing Places in the WAEMU. Unpublished. (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Council of Ministers (2020). Statement of the Council of Minister. 19 June 2020. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/index.php/files/10/Communiques-conseil-ministre/103/COMMUNIQUE-DU-CONSEIL-DES-MINISTRES-DU-19-JUIN-2020.pdf (Accessed 31 July 2020). Pg. 4.
 Council of Ministers (2020). Statement of the Council of Ministers. 12 June 2020. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/index.php/files/10/Communiques-conseil-ministre/102/COMMUNIQUE-DU-CONSEIL-DES-MINISTRES-DU-12-JUIN-2020.pdf (Accessed 31 July 2020). Pg.11.
Since 2017, urban planning has been identified by the government as one of the opportunity sectors in Niger. Natural demographic and migratory pressure is such that demand for affordable housing, for rent or purchase, will remain strong in cities. Urban investment is expected to increase. In addition to the Malbaza cement plant, which covers 80% of the market’s needs, a new cement plant should create 314 permanent jobs in Kao.
The business climate remains difficult, but the country is on the road to recovery: as a result of the implementation of business-friendly reforms and improved access to electricity, and easier access to loans. Between 2019 and 2020 Niger gained 11 places in the Doing Business ranking (132nd out of 190 countries in 2020).
The African Development Bank (AfDB) forecasts growth of 6.9% in 2021 and 7.8% in 2022 for Niger. “This return to strong growth would be supported by the control of the pandemic at the local level, the continuation of major infrastructures and, above all, the exploitation of new oil deposits.” These forecasts should not, however, overlook “the continuing fragility of the security situation”. The AfDB also believes that the country can contain inflationary pressures, and improve its public debt management and domestic resource mobilisation.
 Gaingne, S. (2020). The Malbaza cement company will open a new limestone, sand, and clay quarry in Niger. Niamey and the 2 days. 14 August 2020. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/l-economie/mines/1408-5821-la-societe-malbaza-cement-compagny-va-ouvrir-une-nouvelle-carriere-de-calcaire-de-sable-et-d-argile-au-niger (Accessed 31 July 2020).
Availability of data on housing finance
Economic and financial data are essentially provided by national and regional organisations such as BCEAO, West African Development Bank, AfDB, WAEMU, CRRH, BHN, and commercial banks. As technical and financial partners in Niger’s development, international institutions (World Bank, IMF, UN agencies, European Union) and bilateral cooperation agencies contribute, through their projects, to the production of data on the country. The 5th General Census of Population and Housing will begin in December 2022 (the last one was conducted in 2012) and will make it possible to measure demographic and socioeconomic dynamics and to study the living conditions of households.
The various government websites (Presidency, Renaissance Programme, Ministries) and the online press allow the implementation of public policies and the news of the country to be followed. The production and availability of up-to-date and recent data remain, however, a major challenge, especially on housing finance: little information is available on the Internet for either public institutions or companies in the real estate sector.
Niger’s cities will be under pressure from informality, given present trends. While the country has expanded access to basic urban services since 2000, “more than 70% of the urban population lives in overcrowded and poorly built neighbourhoods and lacks access to basic services, such as improved water and sanitation.”
Moreover, “several cities in Niger located in the middle of the desert have also become more vulnerable to flooding”. In the absence of planning for urban expansion zones, the spontaneous development of informal settlements will only increase disaster victims, who numbered more than 350 000 in August 2020.
The health crisis has revealed and exacerbated the vulnerability of cities and their inhabitants: access to housing ensures hygiene practices, and social distancing in a context where movements are limited, economic activities suspended, and supplies uncertain.
 Council of Ministers (2020). Statement of the Council of Ministers. 20 July 2020. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/files/10/documents/109/COMMUNIQUE%20DU%20CONSEIL%20DES%20MINISTRES%20DU%2024%20JUILLET%202020pdf (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 Council of Ministers (2020). Statement of the Council of Ministers. 10 July 2020. https://www.niameyetles2jours.com/files/10/documents/107/COMMUNIQUE%20DU%20CONSEIL%20DES%20MINISTRES%20DU%2010%20JUILLET%202020pdf (Accessed 31 July 2020).
 BCEAO (2020). Press release. https://www.bceao.int/fr/communique-presse/communique-de-la-banque-centrale-des-etats-de-lafrique-de-louest-bceao (Accessed 31 July 2020.
 Zeufack, A.G., Calderon, C., Kambou, G., Djiofack, C.Z., Kubota, M., Korman, V. and Cantu Canales, C. 2020. Africa’s Pulse, No. 21 (Avril). Washington, DC. Doi: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1569-0. The World Bank. Licence: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0IGO. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/33541/9781464815690.pdf?sequence=17&isAllowed=y (Accessed 31 July 2020). Pgs. 68, 79, 125.
 UNHCR (2020). Coronavirus Niger: Niamey increases its capacity to take care of patients within the stadium. 22 April 2020. https://www.unhcr.org/be/28649-coronavirus-niamey-niger-augmente-ses-capacites-de-prises-en-charge-des-patients-dans-lenceinte-du-stade.html (Accessed 17 August 2020).
World Bank https://www.banquemondiale.org/
International Monetary Fund https://www.imf.org/external/french/index.htm
West African Economic and Monetary Union https://www.uemoa.int
Central Bank of West African States https://www.bceao.int/
African Development Bank https://www.afdb.org/fr
West African Development Bank https://www.boad.org/
Caisse Régionale de Refinancement Hypothécaire http://crrhuemoa.org/
National Institute of Statistics of Niger https://www.stat-niger.org
Africapolis https://africapolis.org/fr 191
Africa Centre for Strategic Studies (2020). Innovations Needed to Prevent
COVID-19 from Catching Fire in African Cities.
africa-cities/ (Accessed August 29, 2021).