Housing Finance in Burkina Faso
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Burkina Faso is a small, landlocked country (274 200 km2) with an estimated population of 21.51 million inhabitants and a population growth rate of 2.4% in 2020. The percentage of the population living in urban areas has increased from 12.7% in 1985 to 22.7% in 2006, and then to 26.1% in 2019. By 2026, only 35% of Burkina Faso’s population is expected to live in urban areas.
The World Bank’s latest assessment of the state of the global economy gives a positive outlook for Burkina Faso in 2021. Services in the country went up by 11.7%, and gold exports kept going up by 6.5%, but agricultural production stayed the same (-1.8%).Inflation rose to 14.7% in the first half of the year, and food prices rose by 13.7%, resulting in food insecurity for large parts of the population. Going forward, economic growth is expected to be driven by the agricultural sector, services, and gold exports.
The housing sector in Burkina Faso is characterised by high levels of informal production and land insecurity as a result of unplanned urbanization. Based on the number of families and the expected number of plots developed, the housing requirement in Burkina Faso is predicted to be about 400,000 units. Nationally, 83.3% of home occupants are owners, 10.2% are operational renters, and rental sales account for just 0.7%. More than 70% of urban workers work in the informal sector and do not have access to the formal housing financing system.
The cheapest house in Burkina Faso was 7,500,000 FCFA (US$11,903.7) with a constructed space of 56 m2 on a parcel of land with a minimum size of 204 m2. Given that the average wage in Burkina Faso is expected to be 95 000 FCFA (US$150.7) in 2021 and that the maximum monthly loan/income ratio for residential home loans is about one-third of family income, The great majority of the people with formal work would need more than 20 years to repay this sort of loan for the purchase of the cheapest property.
Burkina Faso has a dry tropical climate with a short wet season and a long dry season. The country’s climatic zones vary greatly, with some areas receiving much more rainfall than others. In recent years, the eastern and southern parts of the country have experienced rising temperatures and drought. The government is assisting the rural inhabitants in these areas by drilling wells and building small water reservoirs. As a result, among the climate change risks are severe droughts and water shortages connected to low agricultural harvests. To reduce housing vulnerability, an adaptation action plan for the infrastructure and housing sectors was designed. Two major activities were picked in the construction sector: supporting green initiatives and creating energy-efficient houses.
Even with all the help from institutions, financial institutions, real estate businesses, real estate agencies, brokers, building material suppliers, and other real estate intermediaries are still interested in the real estate sector.
Find out more information on the housing finance sector of Burkina Faso, including key stakeholders, important policies and housing affordability:
- Access to Finance
- Housing Supply
- Property Markets
- Policy and Legislation
- Availability of Data on Housing Finance
- Green Applications for Affordable Housing
Each year, CAHF publishes its Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook. The profile above is from the 2022 edition, which has up-to-date profiles for 55 African countries.Download yearbook
Burkina Faso is a small, landlocked Sahelian country (274 200 km2) with an estimated population of 21.51 million inhabitants and a population growth rate of 2.4% in 2020. The percentage of the population living in urban areas has increased from 12.7% in 1985, to 22.7% in 2006 and then 26.1% in 2019.3 By 2026, only 35% of Burkina Faso’s population is expected to live in urban areas. The country is therefore still predominantly rural with approximately 40% of its population living below the national poverty line. The housing sector in Burkina Faso is characterised by high levels of informal production and land insecurity as a result of unplanned urbanisation. The need for urban housing is very high with an estimated demand of 20 000 dwellings/year. It is in this context that the national programme for the construction of 40 000 housing units was launched in 2016, and is still in progress.
However, since 2015, the country has faced terrorist attacks that have caused population displacement. There were more than 1.9 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) as of 31 May 2022 which has exacerbated the housing crisis in the country. Then on 24 January 2022, the armed forces took power in Burkina Faso. The current president is Lieutenant-Colonel Paul-Henri Sandaogo DAMIBA, who was sworn in as President of the Transition on 2 March 2022, following the adoption of the Transition Charter. The 24-month transition includes a government of up to 25 ministers, including a civilian prime minister, a 71-member legislative assembly and a policy and monitoring council. Following the coup, Burkina Faso was suspended from the bodies of regional organizations such as the African Union (AU) and the Economic Council of West African States (ECOWAS) until a return to constitutional order.
On the economic front, the country recorded a strong recovery in 2021 with growth estimated at 8.5%. These good results can be explained by the rebound in services (+11.7%) and by the steady increase in gold exports. Due to low rainfall, agricultural production, on the other hand, stagnated. While exports grew by 6.5% in 2021, imports of hydrocarbons and mining equipment increased by 15.5%, which contributed to the current account deficit estimated at 3.0% of GDP. Measures to combat COVID-19 and expenditure related to the security situation contributed to the maintenance of the budget deficit at 5.5% of GDP. This deficit resulted in an increase in public debt that reached 47.4% in 2021. In addition, strong growth combined with global supply problems led to inflation of 3.9% in 2021. Inflation worsened in the first half of 2022 with the 14.7% rise in food prices, which resulted in food insecurity for a large part of the population.
The return to pre-pandemic growth continued in 2022 with a projected economic growth rate of 4.8% for 2022, in a context marked by both growing insecurity following the January 2022 coup. Going forward, economic growth is expected to be driven by the agricultural sector, services and gold exports, reaching approximately 5.3% in the medium term. Given the security, humanitarian, food, social, and health challenges, its estimated that the budget deficit could reach 6.6% of GDP in 2022. Its gradual return to the 3% norm of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) is not expected before 2025.
Due to its location, Burkina Faso has a dry tropical climate, with a short rainy season and a long dry season. The country also has scarce water resources and poor soil conditions. There are however significant variations in climatic zones in the country, with some areas receiving more rainfall than others, and thus being more prone to flash floods. In recent years, the eastern and southwestern parts of the country are experiencing increased high temperatures and drought. In these areas the government is assisting the rural population to dig wells and build small water reservoirs. The climate change risks are therefore severe droughts and water shortages linked to low agricultural yields. Higher temperatures and windstorms could also lead to forest and bush fires. In order to address these concerns, Burkina Faso developed a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) for climate change in 2015. To address housing vulnerability, an adaptation action plan for the infrastructure and housing sector was proposed. In the construction subsector, two main actions were selected: the financing of green projects; and the construction of housing that consumes less energy in air conditioning systems or does not require any air conditioning equipment. Dealing with the country’s water scarcity issues is also a priority.
 National Institute of Statistics and Demography (2022). Demographic indicators. http://www.insd.bf/ (Accessed 1 September 2022).
 World Bank Group. (2021). Climate Change Knowledge portal. https://climateknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/country/burkina-faso (Accessed 10 October 2022).
 GUIGMAL (2019). The “Hammer”, a blow to the homogenization of Ouagadougou’s neighborhoods. https://ateliers.org/media/workshop/documents/Fascicule_recherche_non-lotis_par_Leandre_guigma.pdf. (Accessed 20 September 2021). Pg. 5.
 Ministère de l’Urbanisme et de l’Habitat MUH (2016). Programme quinquennal de construction de 40 000 logements sociaux et économiques.
 OCHA (2022). Burkina Faso: Humanitarian Overview. https://reliefweb.int/report/burkina-faso/burkina-faso-humanitarian-snapshot-31-may-2022 (Accessed 1 September 2022).
 France Diplomatie (2022). Présentation du Burkina Faso. https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/dossiers-pays/burkina-faso/presentation-du-burkina-faso/ (Consulté le 19 septembre 2022).
 Banque Mondiale (2022). Burkina Faso Vue d’ensemble. https://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/country/burkinafaso/overview#1 (consulté le 01 septembre 2022)
 UNDP (Undated). Climate Change Adaptation. https://www.adaptation-undp.org/explore/western-africa/burkina-faso (Accessed 10 October 2022).
 Ministry of Environment and Fisheries Resources (2015). Burkina Faso’s National Climate Change Adaptation Plan NAP. https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/NAPC/Documents/Parties/PNA_Version_version%20francaise%20finale%20BF.pdf. (Accessed 3 September 2022). Pgs. 53, 54 & 92.
Access to Finance
The housing sector in Burkina Faso is characterised by high levels of informal production and land insecurity. Land ownership is a major constraint for the development of financing, including mortgage financing.
According to 2022 figures from the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), 16 commercial banks offer mortgages in the country.  The State created the Banque de l’Habitat du Burkina Faso (BHBF) in 2005 which was replaced by International Business Bank (IB Bank) in 2018. In order to continue the state’s efforts, IB Bank offers better housing financing conditions with interest rates on residential mortgages ranging from 5% to 7%, for a maximum period of 20 years.
There are 78 microfinance institutions operating in Burkina Faso. Microfinance is more active but there is very little microfinance aimed at housing finance specifically.
While financial inclusion is one of the priorities on the development agenda in Burkina Faso, particularly through the development of the National Strategy for Inclusive Finance, the rate of financial inclusion remained low until 2019 when it reached 70.9%, compared to 14% just five years earlier. Indeed, until 2017, only 51% of men compared to 34% of women had a bank account. With regard to formal saving and formal borrowing, there is little difference between men (respectively 12. 5% and 9. 26%) and women (12% and 9. 42%). However, there are differences in saving and borrowing from informal sources: 31% of women who save do so in the informal sector compared to just 24% for men, and 37% of women who borrow do so in the informal sector compared to 33% for men.
The process of economic liberalisation has led the country to encourage the economic participation of women as entrepreneurs and managers. In 2018, 54. 9% of businesses in the health sector were started and run by women, compared to only 1.1% for the construction and real estate industry. Since 2021, the Professional Organization of Women in Construction and Real Estate (OPF/BTP-I) has served as the member body for women-owned businesses in the sector.
 BCEAO (2022). Banking landscape. https://www.bceao.int/fr/content/paysage-bancaire (Accessed 16 September 2022).
 IB Bank (2021). Bank conditions. https://www.ib-bank.com/sites/default/files/conditions_de_banque_IB_bank.pdf (Accessed 5 September 2022). Pg. 11.
 BCEAO (2021). Main indicators of WAMU DFS as of 30/09/2020. https://www.bceao.int/sites/default/files/2021-02/BCEAO%20-%20Indicateurs%20au%2030%20septembre%202020.pdf (Accessed 27 August 2022). Pg. 1.
 BCEAO (2016). Formulation of a national financial inclusion strategy: Case of Burkina Faso. https://www.bceao.int/sites/default/files/inline-files/Burkina%20Faso_PRESENTATION%20Atelier%20CNSMO_SNFI.pdf (Accessed 2 September 2022).
 NIKIEMA, P. R., BADO, B. (2020). Analysis of the socio-economic determinants of financial inclusion in Burkina Faso. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/345770334_Analyse_des_determinants_socioeconomiques_de_l inclusion_financiere_au_Burkina_Faso (Accessed 2 September 2022). Pgs. 3, 21 and 23.
 Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Burkina Faso (2018). State of play of women’s entrepreneurship in Burkina Faso and the perception of women entrepreneurs on the business climate. https://www.cci.bf/sites/default/files/RAPPORT%20ETUDE%20SUR%20L%27ENTREPRENARIAT%20DES%20FEMMES%20AU%20BURKINA%20FASO.pdf (Accessed 2 September 2022). Pg. 22.
 Ministry of Urban Planning, Land Affairs and Housing (2022). https://www.facebook.com/MUAFHBURKINAFASO/posts/pfbid0VK6hdjbZMhAJuGRcUxgTvcE6SqZ8Uo1xkYhLKagCURQog2Y5MHoPitncGZWh2nRvl (Accessed 10 August 202)…
In Burkina Faso, the housing need is estimated at nearly 400,000 units, if calculated on the basis of the number of households and the estimated number of plots developed. This situation is most evident in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso where the needs are estimated at nearly 240 000 units and more than 60 000 units respectively.
At the national level, 83.3% of dwelling occupants are owners, 10.2% are in operating rentals and rental sales represent only 0.7%. In urban areas, there are 63.3% of owners; 26.2% in single lease; 8.2% hosted for free; and 1.2% in hire-purchase. Housing affordability is impacted directly by household incomes: the unemployment rate is estimated at 7.1% and more than 40% of the population lives below the poverty line. In addition, more than 70% of the urban labour force is employed in the informal sector and therefore does not have access to the formal housing finance system. 
The price of land developed in Ouagadougou by the Société Nationale d’Aménagement des Terrains Urbains (SONATUR) ranges from 25 000 to 45 000 FCFA per m2 (US$39.6 and US$71.4).
As part of the National Programme for the Construction of 40 000 Dwellings (PNCL), 724 dwellings, mainly of type F3 (2 bedrooms + living room + kitchen + internal toilets) were built in the first half of 2022. Between 2007 and 2017, the state produced only about 5 000 homes.  The lowest cost house was 7 500 000 FCFA (US$11,903.7) with a built area of 56 m2 on a plot of land with a minimum size of 204 m2. Knowing that the average salary in Burkina Faso in 2021 is estimated at 95 000 FCFA (US$150.7) and since the maximum monthly loan/income ratio for residential home loans is around one-third of household income, it would take on average more than 20 years for the vast majority of the population with formal employment to repay this type of loan for the purchase of the cheapest home.  However, most loans offered by the country’s banks would not extend to 20 years.
The average annual household consumption is estimated at nearly CFA 2.0 million (US$3 174). This consumption ranges from CFA 1.5 million (US$2 381) for households in the informal sector to CFA 2.8 million (US$4 444) for those employed in the formal private sector. The three largest items in household consumption are in descending order: food, housing and transport, together accounting for 2/3 of household spending.
 Ministry of Urban Planning and Housing (2021). Oun National Urban Observatory.
 Kere Avocats/Agence Perspective/LUMEN Consulting (2021). Diagnostic Report and Recommendations of the Advisory Support Mission for Urban Development Operations in the Urban Pole of Bassinko in Burkina Faso. Unpublished. Pgs. 15-16.
 INSD (2019). Cinquième recensement général de la population et de l’habitation. http://www.insd.bf/contenu/documents_rgph5/Depliant%20resultats%20definitifs%20RGPH%202019.pdf (Accessed 1 September 2022). Pg. 1.
 Banque Mondiale (2022). Burkina Faso Vue d’ensemble..
 Ministry of Urban Planning, Land Affairs and Housing (2022). 2019 Statistical Yearbook of the Ministry of Urban Planning. Pg. 94.
 GUIGMAL. (2019). The “Hammer”, a blow to the homogenization of Ouagadougou’s neighborhoods. Pg. 5.
 Interview with officials from National Housing Construction Programme (PNCL) of the Ministry of Urban Planning, Affaires Foncières et de l’Habitat, 24 August 2022, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
 How much-costs. (2022). Average salary in Burkina Faso in 2022. https://www.combien-coute.net/salaire-moyen/burkina-faso/. (Accessed 28 September 2021).
 INSD (2007). Résumé de la consommation et le rôle du secteur informel dans la satisfaction des besoins des ménages dans l’agglomération de Ouagadougou. http://www.insd.bf/contenu/enquetes_recensements/enq_cond_vie_menages/analyse_enq_conso_men_capitale.pdf (Consulté le 04 septembre 2022). Pgs. 1-2.
Urbanisation and poverty have caused a large imbalance between housing supply and demand, followed by a rapid proliferation of informal neighborhoods. The “one household, one plot” policy implemented by the State between 1983 and 1990 and the provision of unserviced plots between 1995 and 2006 also led to the excessive sprawl of cities, without providing sufficient answers to the need for housing and basic service provision.
Self-build has always been the main means of access to housing in Burkina Faso. Thus, the population largely finances and realises their housing needs themselves with craftsmen working in the construction sector.
Through the National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES) 2016-2020, the proportion of urban populations living in informal areas fell to 10% in 2020; the number of households with access to decent housing increased from 4 572 in 2015 to 35 000 in 2020; and the number of households assisted in self-build went from 100 in 2015 to 5 000 in 2020. Thus, between 2015 and 2018, the number of households with access to decent housing increased by 8 650. Housing units built under the PNCL generally varied between 56 m2 and 68 m2 on land with a minimum size of 204m2 in accordance with the legislation.
In 2018, 140 housing units priced at CFA 7.5 million (US$11,903.7) per unit were produced in Bassinko by the Burkinabe Cooperative of Housing CBH, 52% of whose beneficiaries were women.
With respect to building materials, banco remains the main building material for walls, representing 53. 4% of housing nationally.  However, in urban areas, only 20% of the walls are made of banco; 21% are semi-hard and 57% are hard (cinder blocks). As for the roofs, 94% are made of sheet metal and 4% concrete. Approximately 74% of urban households have cement-covered floor while 18% are tile and approximately 6% in clay. Imports of lime, cement and manufactured building materials increased by CFA 57.6 billion (US$91 420 974) in 2019 at CFA 103.7 billion (US$164 589 498) in 2020. Between the third quarter and the last quarter of 2020, these imports increased from 363. 5 to 380 tons.
However, the use of local materials by the architect burkinabé Diébédo Francis KERE, winner of the 2022 Pritzker Prize, has contributed enormously to promoting the use of local materials to meet climatic conditions.
 Ministry of Urbanism, Housing and the City (2019). Housing in Burkina Faso: a great imbalance between supply and demand. https://www.aib.media/2019/01/31/logements-au-burkina-faso-un-grand-desequilibre-entre-loffre-et-la-demande-ministere/ (Accessed 18 August 2022).
 Présidence du Faso (2016). Plan National de Développement Economique et Social 2016-2020. http://cns.bf/IMG/pdf/pndes_2016-2020-4.pdf (Accessed 7 September 2021). Pgs. 43-44.
 Premier Ministère (2020). Evaluation indépendante à mi-parcours de la mise en œuvre du Plan National de Développement Economique Et Social. https://www.pndes.gov.bf/fileadmin/user_upload/storage/accueil/RAPPORT_PROVISOIRE_EVALUATION_MI_PARCOURS_PNDES_27_04_2020_IPSO_CONSEILS_INSTITUT_DEVELOP.pdf (Consulté le 3 septembre 2021). Pg. 89.
 Lefaso.net (2018). Disputed construction sites in the city of Bassinko : The Burkinabe Housing Cooperative explains why. https://lefaso.net/spip.php?article82013 (Accessed 28 September 2022).
 A mixture of stems of rice, clay soil, and the infusion of nere which are all traditionally used for construction in rural areas.
 INSD (2019). Fifth general population and housing census. http://www.insd.bf/contenu/documents_rgph5/Rapport%20resultats%20definitifs%20RGPH%202019.pdf (Accessed 1 September 2022). Pg. 107.
 INSD (2019). Fifth general population and housing census. http://www.insd.bf/contenu/documents_rgph5/Rapport%20resultats%20definitifs%20RGPH%202019.pdf (Accessed 1 September 2022). Pg. 107.
 INSD (2020). Quarterly note on foreign trade statistics Fourth quarter 2020. http://www.insd.bf/contenu/pub_periodiques/ice/SCE_T4_2020.pdf (Accessed 4 September 2022). Pg. 11.
 Build Green (2022). Price Pritzker 2022: Francis Kéré, the Burkinabe architect uses the materials to meet local climatic conditions. https://www.build-green.fr/prix-pritzker-2022-francis-kere-larchitecte-burkinabe-utilise-les-materiaux-pour-repondre-aux-conditions-climatiques-locales/ (Accessed 5 September 2022).
In Burkina Faso, the real estate sector is governed by Law No. 057-2008/AN of 20 November 2008 on real estate development. However, compliance is a major issue. In February 2021, the Ministry of Urban Planning suspended the processing of real estate projects submitted by real estate developers and set up an ad hoc committee. From the report of this committee, delivered in January 2022, it appears that out of 406 real estate projects submitted by 99 real estate developers, 400 were analyzed by the ad hoc committee and 105 files of 44 real estate developers were deemed admissible. Only these 105 projects respect urban planning areas.
Stakeholders in the real estate sector have grown and organised into industry groups. In 2013, the country’s real estate developers created the National Union of Real Estate Developers of Burkina Faso (SYNAPIB). Subsequently, SYNAPIB and the Association of Real Estate Developers of Burkina Faso (APIB) were born. In 2019 Burkina Faso had about 268 approved real estate companies. The APIB, meanwhile, had 82 members in July 2020.  Increasingly, informal real estate companies are an emerging force in the sector. 
The processing time for preparing land for title is fourteen working days. The processing of an Urban Residence Permit (PUH) for the occupation of urban land intended for housing, takes six working days. Generally the costs of obtaining land title depend on the use of the land, its location and its value. Thus, the flat-rate cost applicable to legal and natural persons in Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso for residential land is CFA 300 000 (US$476). These compliance costs affect overall prices for land. The prices of land developed by SONATUR vary between CFA 25 000 (US$39.6) and CFA 45 000 (US$71. 4) per m2.
With respect to gender, the proportion of women employed in the construction sector and real estate (27%) is slightly higher than the national average (25 4%). The Agrarian and Land Reform (RAF) stipulates that “urban and rural land in the national land domain shall be allocated to natural persons, without distinction of sex or marital status and to legal persons under the conditions laid down by the texts”.  However, access to property by women remains difficult, especially in rural areas.
 Fil Info (2021). Suspension of the processing of real estate development files: the anger of real estate developers. https://filinfos.net/2021/03/12/suspension-du-traitement-des-dossiers-de-promotion-immobiliere-la-colere-des-promoteurs-immobiliers/ (Accessed 18 September 2022).
 Zoodo mail (2022). Land issues in Burkina Faso: 295 real estate projects rejected. https://www.zoodomail.com/fr/urbanisme/problematique-du-foncier-au-burkina-295-projets-immobiliers-rejetes (Accessed 18 September 2022).
 The Reporter (2019). Real estate development in Burkina Faso: Illegal sales of plots by private developers. https://www.reporterbf.net/__trashed?cn-reloaded=1 (Accessed 28 August 2022).
 The Country (2020). Real estate companies. https://lepays.bf/societes-immobilieres/ (Accessed 19 September 2022).
 Directorate General of Taxes (2018). Procedures for processing land and estate files. Pg. 47-50 and 87-92.
 MUAFH. (2022). 2019 Statistical Yearbook of the Ministry of Urban Planning. Pg. 94.
 INSD (2019). Main results of the VII industrial and commercial census of Burkina Faso RIC VII. http://www.insd.bf/contenu/enquetes_recensements/autres_enquetes/Depliant_RIC_VII.pdf (Accessed September 4, 2022). Pg. 2.
Policy and Legislation
In Burkina Faso, housing policies tend to favour the middle class, individual property owners and the formal sector. The housing sector benefits from multiple laws including the Constitution of June 1991, Law No. 017-2006/AN of 18 May 2006 on the Urban Planning and Construction Code in Burkina Faso, and Law No. 057-2008/AN of 20 November 2008 on real estate development in Burkina Faso. Additionally, Law No. 023-2010/AN of 11 May 2010 on the status of co-ownership of buildings built in Burkina Faso, Law 034-2012/AN of 02 July 2012 on agrarian and land reorganization, and Law No. 103-2015/CNT of December 2015 on the Private Housing Lease in Burkina Faso all impact on housing production. The National Housing and Urban Development Policy (PNHDU) implemented between 2009 and 2018 was replaced by the National Strategy for Housing and Urban Development (SNHDU) for the period 2021-2025.
The main stakeholders in the urban sector remains the State through the Ministry of Urban Planning, Land Affairs and Housing (MUAFH) which, in accordance with Decree 2019-0139/PRES/PM/SGG-CM of 18 February 2019, ensures the implementation and monitoring of the Government in terms of urban planning and housing. The implementation of MUAFH’s programmes is driven by its central or mission structures, including the Directorate General of Architecture, Housing and Construction (DGAHC), the General Directorate of Urban Planning, Servicing and Topography (DGUVT), the General Directorate for the Control of Development and Construction Operations (DGC-OAC), and the Permanent Secretariat of the National Housing Policy (SP/PNL). Added to these are the decentralised structures, namely the 13 Regional Directorates of Urban Planning and Housing (DRUH), including the National Society for Urban Land Development (SONATUR), the City Management Center (CEGECI) and the Agency for Consulting and Delegated Project Management (ACOMOD-Burkina). To achieve its missions, other actors external to MUAFH are also involved: the Ministries in charge of Energy, Water and Sanitation, Infrastructure, Environment, Urban Mobility, Finance and Economy, Decentralization, as well as the local and regional authorities such as regions and municipalities.
The private sector is comprised of the professional orders of urban planners, surveyors, architects, civil engineers, real estate developers, real estate experts, and companies in the construction sector and financing institutions. In addition, there are civil society organisations, traditional authorities, custodians of customary law and electronic and financial institutions. Although there are many stakeholders, there is a lack of coordination of actions, weak technical and financial capacity of the private sector and difficulties related to compliance with legislation.
Faced with the persistence of the security and humanitarian crisis since 2016, MUAFH in partnership with the European Union and UN Habitat, has set up a project to strengthen the resilience of local authorities. As part of this process, 312 housing units are being built for the benefit of internally displaced persons, 100 of which are in Kaya, 100 in Tougouri, 50 in Dori and 57 in Kongoussi. These are semi-detached housing type F2 (one bedroom and one living room) of 18 m² scalable, each extendable in F5 (four bedrooms and a living room) on plots of 150 m² each.
 Direction Communication and Press Relations of the Prime Ministry (2022). Internally displaced persons and people in vulnerable situations: Socio-collective infrastructures to improve their living conditions in Kaya, Dori, Kongoussi and Tougouri. https://reliefweb.int/report/burkina-faso/personnes-deplacees-internes-et-en-situation-de-vulnerabilite-des-infrastructures-socio-collectives-pour-ameliorer-leurs-conditions-de-vie-kaya-dori-kongoussi-et-tougouri (Accessed 2 September 2022).
 Guigma, L. P. (2022). Crisis urbanism” in Burkina Faso: concretely. https://lefaso.net/spip.php?article115722 (Accessed 4 September 2022).
In Burkina Faso, real estate is undoubtedly one of the emerging sectors. Between 2014 and 2019, the number of licensed real estate companies significantly increased from 42 to 268, with the entry into the sector of important businesses. The full growth and dynamism of this market can also be seen through the strong growth in imports of building materials and the appearance of a multitude of intermediaries (real estate agencies).
With all the institutional support, the real estate sector remains an attractive sector for financial institutions, real estate companies, real estate agencies, brokers, suppliers of building materials and other real estate intermediaries.
 BAMBIO, Z. F. (2020). Real estate: a booming sector. https://www.investirauburkina.net/immobilier/immobilier-un-secteur-en-plein-essor.html (Accessed 7 September 2022).
Availability of Data on Housing Finance
In Burkina Faso, many shortcomings have been identified in the system for producing and publishing data on housing finance. Data is produced inconsistently, not updated and not generally trustworthy. Existing datasets are very general and non-specific. These include the statistical yearbook produced annually by the Directorate General of Statistical and Sectoral Studies (DGESS) of MUAFH. In addition, the National Institute of Statistics and Demography (INSD) produces data essential to the analysis of the sector, mainly through its General Population and Housing Censuses (RGPH) and its surveys on the living conditions of households.
The World Bank’s Doing Business and the BCEAO’s annual reports also contain indicators on the real estate market. Also, some private promoters and some banking institutions and development partners produce useful data for the diagnosis of the sector.
Green Applications for Affordable Housing
In 2020, the WAEMU Commission adopted Directives No. 0004/2020/CM/UEMOA and No. 0005/2020/CM/UEMOA through the Regional Energy Saving Programme (PREE), a key component of the Regional Initiative for Sustainable Energy (IRED). The first of these directives relates to the energy labelling of electric lamps and new household appliances, while the second sets energy efficiency measures in buildings in the sub-region.
The Government of Burkina Faso and its development partners have recognized the need to prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change through the development of the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and the National Adaptation Plan.
UN Habitat and Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) are supporting the Government through two initiatives to accompany the implementation of the NDC. In order to transform buildings and the construction sector, in particular the housing sector, towards a resource-efficient, low-carbon and climate-resilient sector, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and UN Habitat launched the Sustainable Development Goal 12 Programme for Resource-Efficient Housing with support from the One Planet Multi-Partner Trust Fund. To accelerate the transition to green growth, the GGGI, with the support of the Clean Cooling Collaborative, is active in the implementation of the Energy Efficiency and Refreshment of Social Housing project. The overall objective is to reduce energy demand and improve energy efficiency in the housing sector.
In Burkina Faso, approximately 35% of households light up using solar panels. Less than one out of five households have access to electricity from the network of the Burkinabe National Electricity Company (SONABEL). Approximately 35% of households make use of flashlights. The use of electricity from the SONABEL network is much higher in urban areas (47. 7%) than in rural areas (3. 9%).
At the national level, approximately 70% of households have access to an improved source of drinking water. Well drilling is the most widely used water source both nationally and in rural areas.
With respect to sanitation, nationally only 8.0% of households use improved sanitation facilities (flushing and ventilated latrine), while 40% use common latrines. With regard to waste management, approximately 35% of households dispose of their garbage mainly on the street while 28% deposit refuse on piles of garbage. Private collection as the main mode of disposal of household waste is widely used in large urban centers such as Ouagadougou (44%) and Bobo-Dioulasso (40.5%), but is almost non-existent in rural areas where only 3% of households use it. More than 2/3 of urban households (70. 9%) discharge their wastewater into the street or into nature, while 12% dispose of their wastewater in the yard and 9. 5% use septic tanks.
 UN-Habitat (2022). TDR of the workshop presenting the final report of the national roadmap for the building and construction sector in Burkina Faso. Pg. 1-2.
 INSD (2019). Fifth general population and housing census. http://www.insd.bf/contenu/documents_rgph5/Rapport%20resultats%20definitifs%20RGPH%202019.pdf (Accessed September 2, 2022). Pg. 108-115.
 INSD (2019). Fifth General Population and Housing Census. http://www.insd.bf/contenu/documents_rgph5/Rapport%20resultats%20definitifs%20RGPH%202019.pdf (Accessed September 2, 2022). Pg. 108-115.
Ministry of Urban Planning, Land Affairs and Housing (MUAFH) www.mhu.gov.bf/
West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) www.uemoa.int/
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Burkina Faso www.cci.bf/
LOGIQ SA www.logiq-sa.com/
Associations of Real Estate Developers of Burkina (APIB) www.apib-burkina.com/
Centre de Gestion des Cités (CEGECI) www.cegeci.bf/
International Business Bank www.ib-bank.com/
UN Habitat in Burkina Faso: www.unhabitat.org/burkina-faso
Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) in Burkina Faso www.bceao.int/fr/etats-membres/burkina
Global Green Growth Institute GGGI Burkina Faso www.gggi.org/country/burkina-faso/